The US and Russia both abstained from the UN Security Council (UNSC) vote in New York after a four-day delay.
US ambassador Linda Thomas-Greenfield said the council had created the conditions for humanitarian aid and that Israel and Hamas must respect international humanitarian law, with the hostages released immediately and unconditionally.
“This resolution speaks to the severity of this crisis,” she said, adding that the US was “disappointed and appalled” that the resolution and some Security Council members had failed to condemn Hamas’s “horrific terrorist attack”.
Ms Thomas-Greenfield on Thursday night had argued that the text was a “very strong resolution” as she rejected claims the newest draft contained watered-down language. While saying it was “a resolution that we can support”, she declined to say if the US would vote “yes” or abstain.
Russia’s UN envoy Vassily Nebenzia said the US opposition to the initial draft resolution, which resulted in days of negotiations, had resulted in a “toothless” and “neutered” draft.
He particularly criticised watered-down language that called for the creation of “conditions for a sustainable cessation of hostilities”, saying it fell short of actually pausing fighting and would give Israel a “free hand” to continue its operations.
Mr Nebenzia introduced an amendment that would call for a “suspension” of fighting to allow more aid access, which was immediately vetoed by the US.
Ms Thomas-Greenfield said she would not respond to Russia’s “rant”, saying Moscow “has also created conditions that they are complaining about with their war in Ukraine”.
The resolution, when it was first drafted, called for “an immediate cessation of hostilities”. After the US – a veto power – raised objections to this language, it was altered to “suspension of hostilities”.
The US, however, continued to voice concerns with the text and refused to accept it, causing further delays.
An agreement was struck late on Thursday night with the final version calling for “the conditions for a sustainable cessation of hostilities”.
The text will accelerate aid deliveries through all available routes. However, it will no longer call for the use of all land, sea and air routes for deliveries while the text for a UN monitoring mechanism to exclusively oversee aid going into Gaza has also been scaled back.
Other UNSC members, including Russia, had complained during closed-door talks on Thursday about the amendments made to appease the US, Reuters reported, which led to the vote being postponed for a fourth day in a row.
It came as reports of the death of an American-Israeli dual citizen emerged – after he was taken into the besieged enclave during Hamas’s attack on Israel.
Gadi Haggai was reportedly killed on 7 October during a cross-border attack by Hamas, which saw 1,200 killed and around 240 other people snatched by the group proscribed in the UK and several other Western countries as a terrorist organisation.
The 73-year-old man died in the Nir Oz Kibbutz, after which his body was taken to the Gaza Strip by Hamas, according to a statement from the kibbutz via the Hostages and Missing Families Forum, which has been declaring hostages dead in absentia.
The statement added: “Judi [Mr Haggai’s wife] managed to notify friends that they had been shot and that Gadi was critically injured – it was the last contact with them.
“Judi is still held captive by Hamas. Gadi’s body is still being held by Hamas in Gaza.
“Gadi was a man full of humor who knew how to make those around him laugh. A musician at heart, a gifted flautist, he played in the IDF [Israel Defence Forces] orchestra and was involved with music his whole life.”
The Hostages and Missing Families Forum said the kibbutz was informed of Mr Haggai’s death by the IDF, something the kibbutz has not confirmed.
Hamas did not respond to the statement but has warned “time is running out” for the hostages as the war with Israel neared its 12th week.
Some 130 hostages still remain in Gaza after around 50 were released during a week-long truce deal which ended on 1 December.
Meanwhile, the UN said on Friday that one in four Palestinians were starving because of Israel’s continued bombardment of the Gaza Strip and a lack of available aid, with the risk of famine “increasing each day”.
In its latest update on casualties, Gaza’s health ministry said 20,057 Palestinians have been killed and 53,320 wounded in Israeli strikes since 7 October.